Following the diet is a prerequisite for the treatment of diabetes. By following the basic principles of healthy eating, you can reduce the risk of complications of type 1 diabetes and help your body produce insulin in type 2 diabetes. But the main purpose of diet is to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
Basic principles of diabetes nutrition
For people with diabetes, a balanced diet should include protein, fat, and carbohydrates. The main goal of the diet is to normalize the metabolism. This not only lowers blood sugar levels, but also helps you lose weight, which is especially important for obese people. When compiling a diabetes treatment menu, the following rules must be considered:
- Meals should be scores, 5-6 times a day at most, but small portions. Eat 3 meals and 2-3 snacks a day. To prevent a sharp drop in blood sugar levels, please take an apple or biscuit with you. Breakfast should be within one hour after waking up, and the last meal should be 3-4 hours before going to bed.
- eat on time, At a specific time and at a fixed time interval. This makes it easier to calculate the insulin dose and ensures that blood sugar increases evenly without sudden fluctuations.
- For diabetics, fiber and dietary fiber are very important.They are found in fresh vegetables. Their use does not cause a sharp rise in blood sugar levels, helps to reduce weight and normalize gastrointestinal function.
- When shopping for groceries, prefer lean meat.The fat content in the diet should not exceed 30%. Most of it is vegetable fat.
- Sugary foods are completely excluded from the diet.They can cause a sharp rise in blood sugar, so diabetic patients are contraindicated.
Generally speaking, there is no difference between a diabetic diet and proper nutrition (PP). Based on the principle of PP, its purpose is to accelerate metabolism, reduce weight, and improve the general condition of the body.
When formulating a diet, existing concomitant diseases must be considered. For example, for kidney disease, salt is excluded or restricted, for gastritis with high acidity-fermented dairy products.
Type 1 diabetes diet
In insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, the main emphasis is on substitution therapy. The patient receives daily insulin injections because it is not produced by the pancreas in the context of β-cell death. Modern insulin therapy allows diabetics to independently adjust their diet depending on feelings of hunger and fullness. Many people mistakenly believe that injected insulin can allow food to be consumed in any form and quantity. Diabetics do not even restrict themselves to eating sweets and high-fat foods, and eat like healthy people. However, this attitude towards one's body is unacceptable. In fact, the injected drugs make up for the lack of insulin needed to regulate carbohydrate metabolism. But if a specialized diet is not followed, the drug may not be able to accomplish its task. For example, sweets can cause blood sugar to spike. And if a small dose of insulin is injected, hyperglycemia coma or acute liver failure may occur. For people with type 1 diabetes, diet is essential to life and health. It is formulated with the doctor based on the latest test results, blood sugar levels, age and the presence of chronic diseases.
Bread unit products
In type 1 diabetes, develop a low-carbohydrate diet, including counting bread units (BU). One XE is equal to 10-12 grams of carbohydrates. Based on the obtained value, the insulin dose is calculated. For each unit of bread, 1 unit of insulin is injected. Adjust the dose according to the time of day:
- Morning-1. 5-2 units;
- Days-1-1. 5 U;
- Evening-0. 8-1 U
You can calculate the number of bread units yourself. But to do this, you need to know how many carbohydrates are in 100 grams. product. For example, 100 grams. Cottage cheese contains 24 grams. Carbohydrates. A pack of 200 grams. -48 grams. Carbohydrates. It turns out that if it is 12 gr. carbohydrates in 1 XE, then 4 XE in a packet of cheese. One unit of bread will increase blood sugar by 2. 77 mmol/L. And to process 1 XE, you need 1. 4 U of insulin. Taking these indicators into account, calculate the dose of the injected drug.
Diabetics must comply with XE’s daily norms-it is equal to 18-24. You can only eat up to 7 XE for a meal.
To facilitate the calculation of bread units when constructing a low-carb diet, you can use a special table. It contains staple food.
|product||Quantity in 1 XE|
|Rye bread, white, uncooked bread||20 grams.|
|Milk, natural yogurt, kefir, yogurt||250 ml.|
|Sweetened curd||100 g|
|ice cream||65 grams.|
|Dumplings (semi-finished products)||50 grams.|
|All grain raw materials||1 tbsp|
|Boiled potatoes||70 grams.|
|Milk Mashed Potatoes||2 tbsp|
|Peeled banana||60 grams.|
|dried fruit||20 grams.|
Food glycemic index
Another indicator to consider when formulating a low-carbohydrate diet is the glycemic index (GI) of the food. It is the rate at which the blood sugar level rises after a meal. Diabetics need to choose low-GI foods. They provide an even flow of glucose into the blood and prevent sudden increases in blood sugar levels throughout the day. The glycemic index is divided into three categories:
- Low-up to 50 units;
- Medium-from 50 to 69 units;
- High-more than 70 units.
For type 1 diabetes, choose low-to-medium GI foods. The maximum GI value should not exceed 72 units.
This table provides a list of permitted foods and their GIs.
|GI type||product||Glycemic Index Unit|
|Homemade tomato sauce||55|
High GI foods are strictly prohibited. These include all candies, sausages, muffins, and fried foods. They can significantly increase blood sugar levels and cause weight gain, which is unacceptable in diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes diet
Type 2 diabetes most often occurs in the context of obesity. The main feature of the menu is to choose products with low GI and a small amount of XE. In the second type of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, diet is crucial. By adhering to the basic principles of healthy eating, you can prevent spikes in blood sugar and prevent complications. The type 2 diabetes diet has three functions:
- The metabolism is normalized, and the metabolism is accelerated to reduce weight.
- Maintain normal blood sugar levels.
- Repair damaged pancreatic tissue.
Pay special attention to accompanying diseases. For example, high blood pressure requires the use of blood-thinning foods. In order to lower blood sugar and normalize weight, people with diabetes need to count calories.
In non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes, the same rules must be followed as the diet for type 1 diabetes patients.
In the second type of diabetes, if the patient is overweight, it means that the low-carbohydrate diet number is 8, which means strictly limiting the intake of carbohydrates, animal fats and salt. Reduce hunger pangs by using starch-free vegetables, unsweetened fruits, and regular drinking water.
Diabetes diet "table 9"
Not all types of diets are suitable for diabetics. Nutrition should promote type 2 weight loss and prevent the development of type 1 ketoacidosis. Single diets, keto diets, and other types of food are prohibited. The principle is to reject fat, protein or carbohydrates. For diabetes, the diet "table number 9" is shown. It includes avoiding foods with high glycemic index and high content of bread units. Eating according to this system cannot be said to be tedious, but an important condition is the change of eating habits. We will have to give up fast food, fried and high-fat foods, and sweets.
The low-carbohydrate diet table 9 is specifically designed for type 1 diabetes. It has no therapeutic effect, but helps maintain normal blood sugar levels.
The table contains a list of allowed and prohibited products.
|mushroom||Salty Fatty Fish|
|meat||Fatty meat (goose, duck, pork, lamb)|
|Brown rice and red rice||alcohol|
|Low-fat dairy products and fermented dairy products||Spicy spice|
The general menu for the day is as follows:
- The first breakfast is millet porridge with milk.
- The second breakfast-natural yogurt, apples.
- Lunch-Zucchini and buckwheat rabbit soup, cabbage and cucumber salad, seasoned with vegetable oil.
- Afternoon snack-cheese casserole with berries.
- Dinner-a steamed salmon, a boiled vegetable salad.
A low-carb diet for diabetes will not make you go hungry. The diet will be balanced, satisfying and nutritious.
Many people think that a low-carb diet is strictly restrictive and will make you lean and monotonous. In fact, there are plenty of recipes to make delicious and safe dishes for diabetics. The following products will help enrich the usual menu:
- berry.The diabetic diet includes eating berries instead of sugary foods. Add berries to cottage cheese, use them to make smoothies and mousses, and add cheesecakes and casseroles to sweeten dishes. This natural product has a low glycemic index, it also helps prevent the development of heart and blood vessel diseases, and provides important trace elements to the human body.
- olive oil.Vegetable fats rich in Omega-3 must be present in the diet of diabetics. The best choice is olive oil. It participates in lipid metabolism process, helps prevent retinopathy and delay aging. Olive oil is good for being overweight and improving mood.
- cinnamon.It has anti-inflammatory effects, lowers blood sugar, and improves the taste of food. Add cinnamon to weight loss pancakes, cheesecakes, and other desserts.
- cabbage.Green vegetables must be present in the diet of diabetic patients. The best one is cabbage. The large amount of fiber in the composition can slow the rise of blood sugar levels and reduce them to physiological standards. In addition, cabbage is rich in vitamins needed to strengthen the immune system.
- salmon.Fish should appear in the diet of diabetic patients. Salmon occupies a leading position in terms of the number of useful properties. This fish contains omega-3 fatty acids, which can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases.
The following is an example of a weekly menu for type 1 diabetes:
The rough menu for type 2 diabetes patients for a week is as follows:
Cheese Fried Eggs
If you follow this example, your low-carb diet will help control your blood sugar levels and will not make you uncomfortable with your diet.
A different menu is prepared every day. Eat a variety of foods to make your food enjoyable.
Diabetes' low-carbohydrate diet allows the use of foods with low glycemic index and XE. These include:
- Whole wheat bread;
- Rye bread;
- Buckwheat and oatmeal;
- Red rice and brown rice;
- Lean meat-rabbit, turkey, beef, veal;
- Low-fat fish species-cod, hake, zander, salmon, salmon, pike, etc. ;
- Seafood-squid, shrimp, mussels, crayfish;
- High-end flour pasta;
- Legumes-beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas;
- Dairy products-kefir, fermented baked milk, natural yogurt, yogurt, low-fat milk;
- Vegetables-cabbage, lettuce, radish, tomato, cucumber, zucchini, eggplant, pumpkin;
- dried fruit;
- Tea, coffee, preserves, fruit juice, jelly (without sugar);
- soy sauce;
- Low-fat cheese
- Sesame, sunflower seeds and pumpkin;
- Vegetable oil.
Certain foods tend to lower blood sugar levels. They should not be used in combination with drugs that regulate glucose in the body. These include:
- Pure grapefruit and juice;
- Jerusalem artichoke
- Rose hip
- Cabbage juice
- Garlic, parsley, celery;
- St. John's wort, dandelion, nettle.
Eat according to the allowed food.
The following is a list of prohibited foods that should not be consumed in a diabetic diet. This must be taken into consideration when drawing the menu. The following foods are completely excluded from the diet:
- Sugar and sugary foods;
- White bread;
- Spicy, pickled, smoked and high-salt foods;
- Fatty meat-pork, lamb, chicken skin, lard;
- Potatoes (not more than 2 times a week);
- Store mayonnaise, ketchup, mustard;
- Carbohydrate-rich grains-semolina, millet, rice;
- Boxed juice
- Sweet drink
- Fructose products.
What should not be used for diabetes depends on the patient's condition. In the case of severe obesity, ban sweet fruits-bananas, grapes, melons. Diabetes diet is compiled by the attending physician according to the individual characteristics of the patient's health.
Diabetes diet for pregnant women
During pregnancy, women should follow general dietary guidelines for diabetic patients. Taking into account the glucose level, the dose of insulin can be adjusted. For gestational diabetes that occurs during pregnancy, it is important to adjust your diet to prevent blood sugar from rising. At the same time, doctors allow a less strict low-carbohydrate diet, allowing the use of potatoes and sweet fruits. But nutrition should be combined with regular blood sugar measurement. If blood sugar rises during gestational diabetes, regardless of whether you adhere to a low-carbohydrate diet, additional insulin injections are required.
Children's Diabetes Diet
The treatment of childhood diabetes is carried out under the supervision of an endocrinologist. Insulin injections are prescribed and must be administered strictly according to the schedule. They are related to the feeding time. Allow 10-15 minutes of error. Consider the following rules when arranging meals for children with diabetes:
- In the first year of life, the main food is breast milk. It is important to keep breastfeeding for up to 1. 5-2 years.
- Feeding should be carried out strictly by the hour, rather than randomly arranged.
- If the child is bottle-fed, choose a mixture with a low sugar content for him.
- When arranging meals by the hour, minor errors are allowed. You can breastfeed your baby before the scheduled time.
The low-carbohydrate diet of elementary school students and school-age children has its characteristics:
- Potatoes, sour cream, and egg yolks should be kept to a minimum;
- Oatmeal can be cooked once a day;
- The soup can be cooked with low-fat broth;
- In the daily diet, the presence of vegetables and fruits is mandatory.
The low-carbohydrate diet for children with diabetes is not much different from the diet for adults.
Physical activity is also very important. If a 7-year-old child has a chronic disease, he can exercise only with permission from a doctor. What should be a low-carbohydrate diet depends on the individual characteristics of the young patient. Age, weight, health status, and diabetes type are all taken into consideration. It is essential to develop a detailed diet plan with your doctor. Parents need to realize that diabetes usually does not show up early. For the latent course, symptoms may not be present. If the child is prone to this disease, then diet will help prevent the disease from getting worse. When parents suffer from diabetes, their children's diet needs special control.